In September 2005, Mr. Martini was appointed to head a newly created currency team. This independent investment group is focused exclusively on currency alpha and overlay strategies. Previously, he was head of the quantitative strategies team within the value equities unit. IIe continues to work with international and global value clients and as the lead person shaping currency-management tools and strategies in the cross-border value services. Mr. Martini was named chief international economist with responsibility for currency strategies and senior portfolio manager on the international and global value equities team in 1992. IIe has been a member of the International, Global, and Emerging Investment Policy Groups from their inceptions. Prior to 1992, Mr. Martini had served as a senior economist concentrating on US research since joining Bernstein in 1985. Previously, Mr. Martini conducted economic research and taught at the Institute of Employment Policy at Boston University for three years. He earned a BA from the University of Colorado and an MA in political economy from Boston University. He also completed all course and examination requirements for the PhD program in economics at Boston University.